《商务英语选读》  第04讲


What is the difference between a gift and a bribe?
Have you presented any gifts to foreign friends or business colleagues?If so ,do you think your gifts are proper?
Why should we understand the culture of the receiver if planning to give the proper gifts”
Why is gift giving vital to the company image?
Why should you remember the two points when giving gifts?
Gifts are supplement to business etiquette.
Some basic questions are to be considered when giving gifts.
To give the proper gift,you must understand the culture of the receiver
The gift presented should be manufactured in your home country.
Gifs with company logos should be used as small tokens only.
Gifts should never replace the basics of good business practices and etiquette,They are a supplement to ,not a substitute for,a sound business proposition.Of course,a gift should never take on the appearance of abribe,even in countries where such practices are commonplace.A giftis just that---a freely given token that shows appreciation or respect.A bribe----well,that is part of the mandatory cost of doing business in some places in the world
n.somthing that you add to sth else to improve it or make it complete
The night courses are a supplement to his regular course work
She has been ill and must have supplements to her ordinary food.
An additional part at the end of a book,or a separate part of a newspaper,magazine,etc.
This history has a supplement containing an account of what has happened since 1930.
The newspaper publishes a special travel supplement twice a year.
To add sth especially to what you ran or eat,in order to increase it to an acceptable level.
She supplements her diet with vitamin pills.
Her earnings supplemented his income.
Newspaper Supplement
Ple,pli,ply:full,to fill
Plenty n.多,大量,丰富,充分
Replenish v,再倒满,装足
Replete a.充满的,盈满的
Implement n,工具,器具
complete a,完全的,圆满的:v.晚车果农
deplete v,使空虚,使空竭,用尽
comly v,应允,答应,同意
supply v. 供给,供应,buchognaccomplish v,成就,完成,达成
n.someone who does someone else’s job for a limited period of time
The regular teacher is ill.so a substitute is teaching today/
He is the doctor’s subtitute during holidays/
Sth new of different that you use instead of sth else that you used previously.
Guesswork is no substitute for investigation.
There is no substitute for good food and exercise.
The school board haired a substitute teacher.
I was substitute headmaster for a term.
v.to do someone’s job until the person who usually does it is able to do it again
Her brother substituted ashost while her husband was away.
If you cannot go yourself,please find someone to substitute you.
To use sth new or different instead of sth else.
They donnot like potatos,so we substitute rice .
Substitute for
Let us substitute X for Y in the equation
I substituted your name for mine on the list.
I donnot like to substitute for anybody in this time of crisis.
Wtitute,stit:to set up.to place
Institute n,协会,学会,学院;
constitute v.构成,组织,制定
consitution n.构成,宪法,政体
destitute a.缺乏的,贫穷的
restitute v,偿还,赔偿 归还


an offer or suggestion,esp,in business or politics
The business proposition was rejected as impractical.
The man wanted to buy our house and made us an attractive proposition.
A statement that consists of a carefully considered opinion or judgment.
Karl Marx accepted several of the key propositions developed by Adam Smith.
The two teams prepared to debate the given proposition.
Pos,posit:to rest ,to place
Pose n.姿势,v.做姿势,假装
Compose v.组织 构成, 作曲,构图

decompose 分解,腐烂v

dispose v. 排列,布置,整理

expose v.暴露,揭露,陈列

impose v,是负担,强加于;欺骗

oppose v,反对,妨碍,使对立

propose v申请,提议,推荐;求婚

purpose n.目的,意思 v.想

repose n.休息 v. 休息,安静,寄希望于

suppose v,假定,推测,臆测

take on

to begin to have a particular quality or appearance

As the spring comes,trees and grass take on the green color.

After the student put up National Day decoration,the classroom took on a holiday appearance

to agree to do some work ,or be responsible for sth.

If the new plan takes on,our project shall make rapid progress.

Since graduation she takes on a job to teach in her mother school.


v.to pay money to sb to persuade them to help you esp by doing sth dishonest

We bribed the doorman to let us in

Prisoners bribed the guards for a long rest with cigarettes.


an ammount of money or sth valuable that you give sb.to persuade them to help you or to do sth dishonest

A judge was charged with taking bribes,bribery and corruption.



Black is used as a token of death in some parts of this country.


The boy gave hes girlfriend a diamond ring as a token of his lobe for her.

The shop raises sale by rewarding shoppers with token money in proportion to the money they have paid the shop


That was only a token election



something must be done because the law says it must buy done,compulsory obligatory

Inspection of imported meat is mandatory.

Drug smuggling carried a mandatory death penalty.


manager v. 处理,经营,设法办到

manner n.方法,举止,礼貌

manacle n.手铐,v.束缚 妨碍

manual n.手册,说明书 a.手工的;体力的

mandate v.命令;委托,托管

manifest a.显然的,v.显示,证明

manipulate v.操作,使用,处理

Some basic

 questions to consider if planning to give gifts internationally;

Who are the appropriate people that should receive gifts?Is there someone you must give a gift to?

What is an appropriate gift and what might be considered cultually insensitive?

When should you give the gift?At the first  meeting?At the conclusion of a contract?


a.correct or suitable for a particular time,situation,or purpose

At an appropriate moment I'll offer the visitors some coffee.

Your clothes are hardly appropriate for a job interview.

And finally,how should you present the gift?

V.to take sth for yourself with no right to do this

He is wuspected of appropriating government funds

His land was appropriated by the Army for use as a training ground.

to take sth.esp.money to use for a particular purpose

The city will appropriate money for two new schools.

The money was appropriated by the government for road building.


able to understand other people's feelings and problems

We must be sensitive to the needs of customers.

easily hurt,upset,or offended by things that people say

Donnot be sensitive.I am not blaming you.

able to feel physical sensations.esp pain,more than usual

Make sure you protect sensitive areas of your skin.

able to measure or react to very small changes in heat,light

We need more sensitive thermometers for the test.

sens,sent,scent:to feel,to think

sense n.感觉

senseble a.可感觉的,明达的,敏感的
sensory a.感觉的,感观的
sensual a. 肉体的,五官的
sesor n.传感器,敏感装置
sentiment n,情感,感恩,情绪
nonsense n.胡说,无意义的话
scent n.气味,嗅觉
n.a formal written agreement between two or more people,which says what each person must do for the other.
Read the contract before you sign it.
They just entered into a lucrative contract with a clothing store
If they donnot get the sample to us by this week,they’ll be in breach of contract.
v.to sign a contract in which you agree formally that you will do sth
They contracted to work fixed hours each week
The farmer contracted to lease his land.
To become smaller or narrower
Metal contracts as it becomes cool.
The frightened hedgehog contracts its body into a ball.
International gift giving can become a cultural minefield,The taboos vary from culrure to culture.To give the proper gift one must understand the culture of the receiver.
Giving the appropiriate gift in a timely fashion not only cements personal relationships in some cultures but it can truly enhance a company or personal image.The right gift conveys respect to the individual and buy the same token can convey a company and personal image of globl sophistication,even power.
A social custom which means a particular activety or subject must be avoided because people think it is offensive or embarrassing.
n.a gray powder made from lime and clay,that becomes hard when it is mixed with water and allowed to dry,and that is used in bulding.
The boys wrote their names in the cement before it dried.
Paste the picture in the album with rubber cement.
v.to make a relationship between people or countries firm and strong
His marriage to Lucy cemented important business ties with her family.
John cemented the wing to the model airplane.
v.to improve sth
Good cooking can enhance the flavor of most food.
The moonlight enhanced the beauty of the scene.
n.public opinion that most people have of a person,organization,ptoduct,etc.
The party is seeking to improve its image with women voters.
The princess aimed to project an image of herself as serious and hard working.
A picture that you have in your mind,esp about what sb or sth is like or the way they look.
She had a clear image of how she would lood in the company.
An image of a country garden came into my mind.
Imagery n.想象的
Imagine v.想像,幻想,猜测
Imaginary a.想象的,虚构的,虚数的
Imaginative a.富于想象的,幻想的
Imaginable a.可以想象的,可能的
Imitate v.模仿,仿效
Imitable a.可模仿的
Imitative a.模仿的,爱模仿的
To take sth from one place to another
Your luggage will be conveyed to the hotel by taxi.
The train conveyed the supplies to the warehouse,
To express what you are thinking or feeling without stating it directly.
Do my words convey my meaning to you?
His tone conveyed an unmistakable warning.
To conmmunicate information or a message.
Please convey my best wishes to her.
Voyage n,航行,旅行
Convoy n.护送队 v.护送,护航
Envoy n.使者,特使,公使
Conveyor n.运送者,传送带
Having experience of life ,good judgment about socially important things such as art,fashin.etc
This play is so serious that will only appeal to a sophisticated audience.
Clever designed,very advanced,and often works in a complicated way
The country is developing a kind of highly sophisticated weapon system.
Having knowledge and experience of difficult,or complicated subjects and therefore able to understand them well.
The voters today are much more sophisticated than they were in the 60’s
Sophist n.巧辩家,剥削者
Sophism n诡辩,巧辩
Unsophisticated a,天真的,单纯的,简单的
Philosophy n.哲学
Philosopher n,哲学家,贤人
Sophia 女名 “聪慧” Sophia Loren
In relationship-driven cultures,the gift reflects the company’s image and intentions and gives a potential partner insight into how both you and your company think and are likely to act in the future,Still the main purpose of any gift should be to please and honor the recipient 、Of you keep that in mind ,you will never produce a gift that can be impropriate or worse,insulting.
White clothes are cooler becaise tjeu ref;ect the jeat
She could see her face reflected in the water.
I must reflect upon what answer to give.
Take some time to reflect on your future plans.
Flect,flex”to bend
Flexible a.容易弯曲的,灵活的
Inflexible a.僵直的不灵活的
Deflect v.偏斜,偏转,岔开
Inflect v.活用,词尾变化
Inflection n.词尾变化
n.someone who receives something
The recipients of the Nobel Prize had their names printed in the paper.
Joan was the recipient of the gold medal.
Ceiv,ceip,ceit:to take to hole
Conveive v.构想,持有想法 怀孕
Deceive .v.欺骗,蒙蔽
Deceit n.欺诈,谎言
Perceive v.知觉 ,察觉。看出
Receive v.受到,接受
Receipt n.手锯,收入 


本笔记由 liangfeng 编写。并且被奖励 10家币

本笔记由 liangfeng 编写。并且被奖励 10家币

本笔记由 liangfeng 编写。并且被奖励 10家币