《简明语言学教程》  第02讲

免费获取视频密码的方法: 打开微信扫二维码

然后回复jld36492
可以马上看到密码
微信公众号

简明语言学教程02

              what is language?

language can mean

1 what a person says

2 the way of speaking or writing (e.g. shakespeare's language, luxun's language) 注:自成一体的说话写作风格

3 a particular variety or level of speech or writing 

4 the abstact system undelying构成----的基础) the totality  of the speech/writing    behavior of a community

5   the common featurens of all human languages 广义上来说,所有语言的共性

6 a tool for human communication  交流工具

language  can be generally defined as a system of arbitary (任意的)vocal         symbols used  for  human communication.  构成语言的要素是有规则的,是系统的,每一个语言象征和所指的东西之间是没有规则可循的,是任意的;任意性是约定俗成的;交流的首先工具是声音,先有说后有写,写是为了记录说。语言是人类特有的。

the design/defining fesatures of human language  这几个特征使语言不同于动物语言

1 arbitrariness 任意性 there is no logical connection between sounds and meanings 有些例外 拟声词(onomatopoeic)复合词(compound)  eg."photo"and "copy"are both arbitrary,the compound word "photocopy"is not entirely arbitrary;black-board,  it makes it possible  have unlimited expressions.

2 productivity/creativity  可以说出一些从来没有听过见过的话 pecular to human language,users of language can understand and produce sentences they have never heared or seen before  红眼睛的大象在宾馆的床上跳舞。虽然没见过但是可以想象。

3 duality 双重性  lower level-----sounds(meaningless)         high level ----meaning (larger units of meaning)     sounds ----group and regrouped--meanings--range and rearrange---infinite nubers of sentences英语中有元音辅音本身不具有意义,但相互结合可以组成有意义的词。我们可以编一本字典,但无法编一本句典。

4 displacement 移位性 language can be used to refer to things,which are not present real or imagined matters in the past ,present or future ,or in far-way places.人类语言可以对不是现在正在发生的事情进行描述,可以说古代,说美国。大猩猩无法看到香蕉,只能表述现在想吃,无法说去年吃过。语言的移位性能描述空间和时间上的。蜜蜂发现食物时跳的一种舞蹈不属于移位性。

5  language is cultural transmitted (through teaching and learning ;rather than by instinct) 一个完全不会英语的中国人和一个完全不会中文的英国人可能沟通很难,但是中国的猫和英国的猫不会有困难。文化的影响。狼孩无法说人类的语言,就是没这种cultural transmission。

6 interchangeability 互换性 课中未提及

Functions of language

phatic 客气寒暄功能 maintain social contact,establish an atmosphere

directive 指示功能  get the hearer to do sth.

informative信息功能 give information about facts

interrogative询问功能 get information from others

expressive 表达功能express feelings and attitudes of the speakers.

evocative  or emotive 感情功能 creat certain feelings in the hearer

performative 施为功能 用语言来做事情

lecture 2 phonology音系学

language is primarily vocal. the primary medium of human language is sound. linguists are not interested in all sounds, but in speech sounds-----sounds that convey meaning in human communication.

phonetics 语音学

--------  a branch of linguistics which studies the characteristics of speech sounds and provides methods for their description,classification and transciption. e.g.[p]        bilabial ,stop

根据研究角度不同,细分为三种

Three branches of phonetics

Articulatory phonetics-------from the speakers' point of view,"how speakers produce speech sound"(发音语音学/发声语音学)

Auditory phonetics---- from the hearers' point of view,"how sounds are perceived"(听觉语音学)听的听到“P”如何反应

Acoustic phonetics-----from the physical way or means by which sounds are transmitted from one to another(声学语音学)

articulatory phonetics

pharyngeal cavity(咽腔)------the throat

the oral cavity(口腔)-----the mouth

nasal cavity(鼻腔)----the nose

the diagram of speech organ知道意思就可

1、lips(唇) 2、teeth(齿)3、 teeth ridge(齿龈alveolar) 4、hard palate(硬腭)5、 soft palate (velum)(软腭)6、uvula(小舌)7、tip of tongue(舌尖)8、  blade of tongue (舌面) 9、back of tongue (舌根

) 10、vocal cords(声带)·11、 pharyngeal cavity(咽腔)12、nasal cavity(鼻腔)

orthographic ( 拼写正确的)representation of speech

A standardized and internationally accepted  system of phonetic transcription is the International Phonetic Alphabet(IPA).The basic principle of the IPA is using one letter to represent one speech sound.

宽式音标broad transcription  used in dictionary and textbook for general purpose,without diacritics

严式音标narrow transcription used by phonetician for careful study, with diacritics.(区分音符)

    

本笔记由 feitian19890516 编写。并且被奖励 10家币

本笔记由 feitian19890516 编写。并且被奖励 10家币

本笔记由 sgyq1988qq 编写。并且被奖励 10家币

本笔记由 qsyrhappy 编写。并且被奖励 5家币

本笔记由 美丽99 编写。并且被奖励 -1家币

本笔记由 jiayouoo 编写。并且被奖励 10家币

本笔记由 munchkin 编写。并且被奖励 1家币